All aircraft leave a trail of wake turbulence behind them as they pass through the air. Light planes don't leave much at all, but the larger airliners leave so much that following traffic has to be separated from them by several miles to avoid potential problems. This is known as wake vortex separation.
Here's a fascinating video of Boeing 777 airliners, among the largest in the sky, and the wake vortices and turbulence they produce. The cloudy, moist air through which they're flying allows condensation to form, revealing air patterns, and their wake disturbs the clouds to show how following aircraft might be affected by downdrafts and other hazards. Watch it in full-screen mode for best results.