Many countries practice operating military aircraft from civilian highways, often strengthening or adapting the latter during construction so that they can be used as emergency air bases in the event of hostilities. However, most of the aircraft involved (that I've heard about, at least) have been standard fighter or strike aircraft; not the largest or heaviest in a modern air force.
Russia recently sent some of its Sukhoi Su-34 strike aircraft to practice operations from an improvised airstrip on a highway in Tatarstan. The Su-34 is very large and heavy (comparable to the older US F-111), rather bigger than one would expect to operate from that kind of surface. They must build their roads tough in Tatarstan!
Interesting, too, is the range of equipment deployed for the exercise - support vehicles of every description, radars, and what have you. In wartime, there would probably also be missile batteries for anti-aircraft defense. It looks like a well-practiced operation.