I was pleased to come across an 'Updated Glossary of Military Speak and Catchy Sayings' over at Sgt. Brandi's place. They're oriented towards the US Marine Corps, but will be familiar to members and former members of many other services and armed forces. Here are a few examples. (Language alert - the author isn't politically, linguistically or politely correct!)
Brain Grenade. Usually a beer, but anything capable of joyfully killing brain cells.
Chow Hall. The Gourmet Kitchen of Marines, serving only the finest of foods, and staffed by world renowned chefs.
Murphy. A being that waits for you to make a mistake, to make things worse. Usually flies on the back of a Great Eagle that s***s on your head.
Pain is Good, Now Feel the Goodness. A favorite saying of Drill Instructors about to make your body, feel the Goodness. You know, like in “drop down and give me a thousand!”
There are many more at the link. They'll bring back memories for those who've endured them, be a refresher course for those who've learned different terms for the same things in different services, and provide entertainment to the rest of you.